Anatomy of Mandibular Teeth
Torus or bony growths in the mouth are very common in adults and affect about 90 percent of the population. Not only can tori cause discomfort, but they can also interfere with mouth functions. They can fluctuate in size throughout the life, and when they touch, they can make the fabrication of dentures difficult. However, they can also be harmless, so they are usually not a cause for concern. Let’s take a look at their anatomy of Mandibular Teeth.
Distal surface of mandibular incisors
The distal surface of mandibular lateral incisors is similar to that of the central incisor but is slightly longer and wider mesiodistally. The distal contact area is rounded and at a right angle to the long axis, similar to the mesial surface. In addition, mandibular central incisors have two roots.
The central incisors, on the other hand, have a triangular outline. The crown of the central incisor is smaller than the distal surface of the lateral incisor, while the root appears longer. The crown and root measure approximately one millimeter shorter than the central incisor. The cervical line is not as curved as the mesiodistal axis and the lingual surface is concave.
The central incisors are smaller than those of the maxilla and have a narrower lingual surface. Their root is more concave, and their lingual and mesial surfaces are symmetrical. Both have two antagonists, and one is ovoid. It is important to note that mandibular central incisors have concavities.
Mesial surface of mandibular central incisor
The mesial surface of the mandibular central incisive is flat with slight concavity at the labial and lingual edges with teeth. This shape reflects the root concavities and is similar to the cervical and midroot cross sections. This tooth is slightly narrower and has a pointed apex. There are two types of incisive teeth in the mandible.
The permanent mandibular central incisive is symmetrical on its incisal side. The incisal ridge is nearly parallel to the labiolingual axis and runs perpendicular to it. The labiolingual axis is longer than the mesiodistal axis. The labial surface is concave and reaches the labiopalatal region.
The mesial surface of mandibular teeth is flat, but it is also curved at the cervical line. This incisal surface is convex in all directions, with the highest curvature occurring at the cervical third. It is flat and features two shallow grooves at the incisal edge that separate three mamelons. 강남치과 The root of the upper central incisor is cone-shaped and about two-to-three mm longer than the crown. The crown is 10-11 mm long.
Mesial surface of mandibular molars
The mesial surface of mandibular second molars consists of four distinct grooves. The first groove runs buccolingually and ends at the occlusal surface of the buccal molar. The second groove begins in the buccal area, between the mesiobuccal and distobuccal cusps. The lingual groove runs from the buccal surface to the distal part of the central groove, and the third molar has a mesiobuccal pit.
The mesial surface is not perfectly rhomboid and is broader at the cervical third than the occlusal third. The mesial surface also shows a slight lingual inclination and two mesial cusps, rather than four. Typically, the buccal margin is convex from the gingiva to the occlusal third. Some specimens exhibit a slight concavity in the middle third of the outline.
Root canal anatomy of mandibular teeth
Despite the complexity of mandibular teeth, the root canals of these teeth are very similar. The radix paramolaris orifice is located mesiolingually from the main canal, and radix entomolaris orifice is located distobuccally. The main canal of the mandibular teeth is a single, wide, central canal.
The anatomy of mandibular teeth differs in various cultures. Asian populations exhibit more distolingual roots than their Western counterparts. North American aboriginal populations also have a higher rate of distolingual roots in mandibular molar teeth. However, few studies have shown gender-related variations in root form. CBCT 3D imaging has been used to study root canal anatomy.
Early investigations used laboratory and conventional radiography to understand the anatomy of teeth. They also injected resins and studied the roots. Later studies used large numbers of extracted teeth for detailed analyses and comparison of root number for multirooted posterior teeth. Various data from these early studies were used in the first dental textbooks. It is not surprising that there have been numerous studies about the anatomy of teeth in recent years. These studies have led to a vast number of publications about mandibular teeth.